HyperKnowledge seminar 3

Marc-Antoine Parent

November 19th, 2021

The local model: getting more formal

Entities and Relations (from seminar 2)

  • Fragments (Symbols in context) are interpreted as Concept representations
  • Concept representations are deemed equivalent
    • Concepts as equivalence class. (Materialized?)
  • Concepts (representations?) are named using many Symbols
  • In a Perspective, we can choose an unambiguous representative Symbol for a Concept
  • Statements (complex concepts) reference Entities
  • Concepts are separated by distinctions, joined by abstraction
  • Refinement of successive concept representations

Immutables and identity

Recursivity means giving a locator to every entity at any level.

  • Stable identifiers for immutable data
    • Aim to reuse IPLD work, but should accept other content-addressable ID

Topics, Raw Symbols and Structures

Enriched symbols

  • Structures are meaningless without a schema
    • Think of JSON-LD context as an example
    • Likely to build on other schema languages
  • Natural language strings are meaningless without a language identifier

Annotated Symbols and Structures

Symbols usually come from documents

  • Document fragments follow Web Annotation standard
  • Data fragments?



Concept representations

  • Concept representations can be any structure, following any schemas
  • Concept representations are not Concepts, but concept proxies, as are names
  • We want to express Claims and Definitions
  • Concept representations form a DAG
  • Interpretation and Distinction are Claims
  • Note that concept representations are immutable



  • We allow arbitrary identifiers to name non-immutable topics.
    • URN, URL and LanguageSymbols are explicitly allowed
    • Such identifiers may be ambiguous, but that’s for the next slide
  • Mutability can take the form of document locators or event sourcing
  • It should be possible to translate between the two

Mutable topics


  • Materialize a set of accepted claims as a Perspective
  • Each ConceptRepresentation has a history of (accepted) Replacement proposals
  • This gives rise to a tree of Replacements for any ConceptRepresentation
    • Replacements form a general graph globally, but accepted Replacements within a Perspective must form a tree
    • Forkpoints are materialized (locally?). They may correspond to a valid abstraction.
    • Leaves of that tree, and valid abstractions, are deemed valid concepts within that perspective.


Concept equivalence

  • Explicit equivalence relation
  • Generates (perspective-local) materialized equivalence classes
    • Within a perspective, enforce coherence with Distinctions and Replacements
  • Naming diversity

Concept equivalence

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